Sunday, 31 March 2013

Feb 2013 ADSL Router Analysis

I have now completed 12 months of collecting the log files from my ADSL router and moving into the second year of data collection. I will be looking at how 2013 data matches up against the 2012 data on a month per month basis.

Source IP addresses are the source address from the packet(s) detected, it is not necessarily the true source of the attack.

YearCountriesSource IPsAttacks

Attacks coming from Turkish owned IPs is consistent, however in Feb 2013 the rest of the attacks have no pattern.

CountrySource IPsAttacksCountrySource IPsAttacks
Netherlands116United States27


South Africa11

United Kingdom11

Friday, 29 March 2013

Retriving passwords /etc/shadow

Using Python to retrieve passwords from the /etc/shadow file on Backtrack 5R3 as an exercise in improving scripting skills.

Note: This is an educational exercise for those wishing to learning python as part of becoming a security professional in order to improve their skills and enable them to write or modify tools, a key part of any pen testers repertoire. A solution is not giving, however how to get to a working solution is laid out in the notes. By understanding how the shadow password system works, it is possible to write a script to solve the problem.

In the Violent Python book one of the first example is retrieving passwords from the /etc/passwd file and after describing their example it ask if those reading can modify the script to retrieving passwords in the /etc/shadow file, giving the hint that the shadow file uses SHA512 hashing, the functions for which are in the hashlib library. This is a red herring as the hashlib file only outputs either in Hexadecimal or a string containing non-printable ASCII characters, where as the shadow file contains only printable ASCII characters.

First thing is to understand the problem, on backtrack we know the default password is toor for the user root, this enable us to test our script quite easily. However lets us examine a line from the shadow file.


We can see it consists of data separated by colons, the meaning of each segment can be found in the /shadow man page.

  • login name
  • encrypted password
  • date of last password change
  • minimum password age
  • maximum password age
  • password warning period
  • password inactivity period
  • account expiration date
  • reserved field

We are only interested in the first two fields.

  • The login name must be a valid account name, which exist on the system.
  • The encrypted password refer to man page on crypt for details on how this string is interpreted.

The encrypted password file consist of a data segmented by the "$" symbol, these fields are
  • Hash method
  • Salt Value
  • Encrypted Password
The hash methods are represented by the following keys
  • $1$ - MD5
  • $5$ - SHA256
  • $6$ - SHA512
In the case of the example above, the fields are
  • username = root
  • hash method = $6$ (SHA512)
  • Salt = 1hjjWhtS
  • Encrypted password = Or2xL2Eedes/ajatnSc0g ..... 6h7eVs8jlkHVptD0
We still don't have enough information to retrieve the password, as the hashing algorithm, if it is SHA256 or SHA512 is repeated a number of times (rounds). We need to know the number of rounds that have been used as this can be changed, the more rounds, the longer it takes to hash the password which is inconvenient to the user but makes it harder for the attacker if they are brute forcing the password.

If we examine the /etc/login.defs file we will find section giving the number of rounds used.

# Only used if ENCRYPT_METHOD is set to SHA256 or SHA512.
# Define the number of SHA rounds.
# With a lot of rounds, it is more difficult to brute forcing the password.
# But note also that it more CPU resources will be needed to authenticate
# users.
# If not specified, the libc will choose the default number of rounds (5000).
# The values must be inside the 1000-999999999 range.
# If only one of the MIN or MAX values is set, then this value will be used.
# If MIN > MAX, the highest value will be used.

We know have enough information to attempt to write a script to retrieve the password, we can copy the shadow file to a text file "shadow.txt" and we need a dictionary file "dictionary.txt" contain a word per line.

We can read each line of the shadow.txt, parse the line to extract the username, salt and encrypted password. We can combine the salt with the word from our dictionary.txt file and hash the word and compare it to the encrypted password, if it matches we have guessed the password. In order to do this we need the correct hashing library, the hashlib is not suitable, the correct one is Passlib which is not installed by default on Backtrack 5R3 but can easily be added using the following command

easy_install passlib

To use passlib we can send it the guessed word, the salt value and number of rounds to be used, as shown in the following commands to import the hashing routine and call it.

from passlib.hash import sha512_crypt
sha512_crypt.encrypt(word,salt=salt, rounds=5000)

The lib passlib when it produces a hash digest the output consists of a number of fields and uses by default 60,000 rounds.

  • Hash method
  • Number of rounds
  • Salt Value
  • Encrypted Password

An oddity is that when the number of rounds is set to 5000, the number of rounds is not outputted, making it compatible with the shadow file format.

All we need to do is parse the returned line and compare the encrypted value of the guessed word to the value retrieved from the shadow file.

Security point

Changing the default number of rounds to a higher value can considerable delay an attacker and often make tools that use the default value unusable. Assuming 250ms to hash a word using 5000 rounds, changing to 60,000 rounds will increase the time to 3 secs, over a dictionary attack using several thousand words this will dramatically increase the time to try every word.

Learning outcome

Understanding an operating system and how it is configured will help the security professional develop techniques and tools for testing the security posture of the operating system. The exercise in the book was impossible to complete without understanding how the shadow password system was configured.

Remote procedure call (RPC)

is an inter-process communication that allows a computer program to execute a subroutine or procedure in another address space (commonly on another computer on a shared network) without the programmer explicitly coding the connection for this remote interaction.

The idea of treating network operations as remote procedure calls can be traced back to the ARPANET in the 1980s.  Xerox under the name "Courier" implemented one of the first business uses of RPC in 1981. The first popular implementation of RPC on Unix was Sun's RPC (now called ONC RPC), this was used as the basis for Network File System (NFS).

The RPC (Remote Procedure Call) mechanism allows an application to seamlessly invoke remote procedures, as if these procedures were executed locally. There are two main implementations of the RPC mechanism:
  • ONC RPC 
RPC allows one program to request a service from a program located in another computer in a network without having to understand network details. RPC uses the client/server model. The requesting program is a client and the service-providing program is the server. A number of interesting services run as Remote Procedure Call (RPC) services using dynamically assigned high ports. 


To keep track of registered endpoints and present clients with accurate details of listening RPC services, a portmapper service listens on known TCP and UDP ports and maps RPC program numbers and versions to Internet port numbers.

  • The ONCRPC portmapper (also known as rpcbind within Solaris) can be queried using the rpcinfo command found on most Unix-based platform and listens on TCP and UDP port 111
  • The Microsoft RPC endpoint mapper (also known as the DCE locator service) listens on both TCP and UDP port 135


Open Network Computing (ONC) Remote Procedure Call (RPC)  was originally developed by Sun Microsystems as part of their Network File System project. It was orginally described in RFC 1831, published in 1995. RFC 5531, published in 2009, is the current version. Authentication mechanisms used by ONC RPC are described in RFC 2695, RFC 2203, and RFC 2623. In 2009, Sun relicensed the ONC RPC code under the standard 3-clause BSD license and then reconfirmed by Oracle Corporation in 2010 following confusion about the scope of the re-licensing.

The port mapper (rpc.portmap or just portmap, or rpcbind) is an Open Network Computing Remote Procedure Call (ONC RPC) service that runs on network nodes that provide other ONC RPC services.

The port mapper service always uses TCP or UDP port 111; a fixed port is required for it, as a client would not be able to get the port number for the port mapper service from the port mapper itself. The port mapper must be started before any other RPC servers are started.


Microsoft RPC (Microsoft Remote Procedure Call) is a modified version of DCE/RPC. Additions include support for Unicode strings, implicit handles, inheritance of interfaces (which are extensively used in DCOM). Examples of Microsoft applications and services that use port 135 for endpoint mapping include Outlook, Exchange, and the Messenger Service.

Depending on the host configuration, the RPC endpoint mapper can be accessed through TCP and UDP port 135, via SMB with a null or authenticated session (TCP 139 and 445), and as a web service listening on TCP port 593


Both ONC RPC and MSRPC portmappers can be interrogated to provide information on the services that are running through them.

The rpcinfo tool can be used on Unix systems to enumerate the services running on port 111 (rpcbind) or 32771 (Sun's alternate portmapper). For windows systems tools such as edump can be used. Nmap has a number of useful scripts

  • msrpc-enum
  • rpc-grind
  • rpcap-brute
  • rpcap-info
  • rpcinfo
  • msrpc
  • msrpctypes
  • nrpc

In addition to those listed above a number of the smb scripts use RPC to enumerate services. When enumerating the services we are looking for interesting services such as nfs, rusers, mountd along with information on smb.

In networks protected by firewalls and other mechanisms, access to the RPC portmapper service running on port 111 is often filtered. Therefore, determined attackers can scan high port ranges (UDP and TCP ports 32771 through 34000 on Solaris hosts) to identify RPC services that are open to direct attack.
You can run nmap with the -sR option to identify RPC services listening on high ports if the portmapper is inaccessible.

Wednesday, 27 March 2013

Server Message Block

The Server Message Block (SMB) operates as an application-layer network protocol mainly used for providing shared access to files, printers, serial ports, and miscellaneous communications between nodes on a network. Using this protocol, an application (or the user of an application) can access files at a remote server as well as other resources, including printers, mailslots, and named pipes. A client application can read, create, and update files on the remote server.

Most usage of SMB involves computers running Microsoft Windows, where it was known as "Microsoft Windows Network" before the subsequent introduction of Active Directory. Corresponding Windows services are the "Server Service" (for the server component) and "Workstation Service" (for the client component).

The Server Message Block protocol can run atop the Session (and lower) network layers in several ways:
  • directly over TCP, port 445
  • via the NetBIOS API, which in turn can run on several transports:
    • on UDP ports 137, 138 & TCP ports 137, 139
    • on several legacy protocols such as NBF


There have been a number of versions of SMB starting with its forerunner CIFS up to version 3 in Windows Server 2012. The versions and the corresponding Operating Systems are shown below.
  • CIFS – The ancient version of SMB that was part of Microsoft Windows NT 4.0 in 1996.
  • SMB 1.0 (or SMB1) – The version used in Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Server 2003 and Windows Server 2003 R2
  • SMB 2.0 (or SMB2) – The version used in Windows Vista (SP1 or later) and Windows Server 2008
  • SMB 2.1 (or SMB2.1) – The version used in Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2
  • SMB 3.0 (or SMB3) – The version used in Windows 8 and Windows Server 2012
Although the protocol is proprietary, its specification has been published to allow other systems to interoperate with Microsoft operating systems that use the new protocol.

The SMB protocol can provide a lot of information for the enumeration of targets and this is shown below.

SMB & NMap

Nmap can discovery a lot of information about a target using smb, typical output from against a Windows target is show below.

| smb-os-discovery:
|   OS: Windows XP (Windows 2000 LAN Manager)
|   OS CPE: cpe:/o:microsoft:windows_xp::-
|   Computer name: insecure-62400a
|   NetBIOS computer name: INSECURE-62400A
|   Workgroup: WORKGROUP
|_  System time: 2013-03-26T17:10:49+00:00
| smb-security-mode:
|   Account that was used for smb scripts: <blank>
|   User-level authentication
|   SMB Security: Challenge/response passwords supported
|_  Message signing disabled (dangerous, but default)
|_smbv2-enabled: Server doesn't support SMBv2 protocol

Nmap supports the following scripts with their designated categories.

NMAP scripts (category)

  • smb-brute (brute) (intrusive)
  • smb-check-vulns (dos) (exploit) (intrusive) (vuln)
  • smb-enum-domains (discovery) (intrusive)
  • smb-enum-groups (discovery) (intrusive)
  • smb-enum-processes (discovery) (intrusive)
  • smb-enum-sessions (discovery) (intrusive)
  • smb-enum-shares (discovery) (intrusive)
  • smb-enum-users (auth) (intrusive)
  • smb-flood (dos) (intrusive)
  • smb-ls (safe) (discovery)
  • smb-mbenum (safe) (discovery)
  • smb-os-discovery (safe) (default) (discovery)
  • smb-print-text (intrusive)
  • smb-psexec (intrusive)
  • smb-security-mode (safe) (default) (discovery)
  • smb-server-stats (discovery) (intrusive)
  • smb-system-info (discovery) (intrusive)
  • smb-vuln-ms10-054 (intrusive) (vuln)
  • smb-vuln-ms10-061 (intrusive) (vuln)
  • smbv2-enabled (safe) (default)

Some of these scripts will require you to specify the unsafe script argument "--script-args=unsafe=1" in order for them to run..

smb-flood is not recommended as a general purpose script, because a) it is designed to harm the server and has no useful output, and b) it never ends (until timeout).

The smb-psexec is not included by default and needs downloading from

Null Sessions

A key feature an attacker will be looking for is null sessions, where an attacker can connect via an anonymous user, where a connection can be made using a command as shown below.

net use \\\IPC$ "" /u:""

Once a connection has been formed it is possible to enumerate shares on the remote system, a lot of this activity can be done using the scripts in Nmap.

Friday, 22 March 2013

nbtstat usage

Putting together a resource on nbtstat.

Nbtstat is a diagnostic tool provided by Microsoft in several of its WIndows versions for NetBIOS. It can provide a source of information for a PenTester that may be useful.

Understanding NetBIOS and the output of the nbtstat tool can help identify machines and servers within a network.

From Wikipedia

NetBIOS is an acronym for Network Basic Input/Output System. It provides services related to the session layer of the OSI model allowing applications on separate computers to communicate over a local area network.  NetBIOS normally runs over TCP/IP via the NetBIOS over TCP/IP (NBT) protocol. This results in each computer in the network having both an IP address and a NetBIOS name corresponding to a (possibly different) host name.

NetBIOS runs over TCP/IP and is the network component that performs computer name to IP address mapping, name resolution. It provides three distinct services:

  • Name service for name registration and resolution.
  • Datagram distribution service for connectionless communication.
  • Session service for connection-oriented communication.

These operate over the following network ports

  • the name service operates on UDP port 137 (TCP port 137 can also be used, but rarely is).
  • the datagram service runs on UDP port 138
  • the session service runs on TCP port 139.

Computers names

Microsoft Windows are identified by names, there is the DNS host name which is out of scope for this article and the hostname which has limitations.

Minimum name length: 1 character.
Maximum name length: 15 characters.

You may of expected the length to be 16 characters however the last character is reserved to identify the functionality that is installed on the registered network device.

From Wikipedia

The NetBIOS name is 16 ASCII characters, however Microsoft limits the host name to 15 characters and reserves the 16th character as a NetBIOS Suffix. This suffix describes the service or name record type such as host record, master browser record, or domain controller record. The host name (or short host name) is specified when Windows networking is installed/configured, the suffixes registered are determined by the individual services supplied by the host.

I have collated from a number of sources some of the unique Identifiers and these are listed below.

Unique Identifiers

Number (Hex) Usage for unique usernames Name
03 name of the user currently logged on in the WINS database <username>
Number (Hex) Usage for unique names Name
00 Workstation, Domain Name <computername>
01 Messenger (Workstation) <computername>
03 Messenger (User) <computername>
06 Remote Access Server <computername>
1F NetDDE <computername>
20 File Server <computername>
21 Remote Access Server Client <computername>
22 Microsoft Exchange Interchange <computername>
23 Microsoft Exchange Store <computername>
24 Microsoft Exchange Directory <computername>
30 Modem Sharing Server Service <computername>
31 Modem Sharing Client Service <computername>
42 mccaffee anti-virus <computername>
43 SMS clients remote control <computername>
44 SMS Administrators Remote Control tool <computername>
45 SMS Clients Remote Chat <computername>
46 SMS Clients Remote Transfer <computername>
4C DEC Pathworks TCPIP service on Windows NT <computername>
52 DEC Pathworks TCPIP service on Windows NT <computername>
53 Domain Name Service (DNS)?? <computername>
87 Microsoft Exchange MTA <computername>
6A Microsoft Exchange IMC <computername>
1B Domain Master Browser <computername>
1F NetDDE Service ID <computername>
BE Network monitor agent <computername>
BF Network monitor utility ID <computername>
Number (Hex) Usage for group names Name
00 Name Domain <domain>
01 Master Browser <\\--__MSBROWSE__>
20 Internet Group name ID <domain>
1C Domain Controller <domain>
1D Master Browser name <domain>
1E Browser Service Elections <domain>
Number (Hex) Usage for group names (IIS) Name
00 IS~computer name <INet~Services>
01 INet~Services <computername>    

nbtstat tool

To run Nbtstat there is no authentication required across domains and workgroups on the Windows computers.

NBTSTAT [ [-a RemoteName] [-A IP address] [-c] [-n] [-r] [-R] [-RR] [-s] [-S] [interval] ]

-a   (adapter status)
     Lists the remote machine's name table given its name
-A   (Adapter status)
      Lists the remote machine's name table given its IP address.
-c   (cache)        
     Lists NBT's cache of remote [machine] names and their IP addresses
-n   (names)        
     Lists local NetBIOS names.
-r   (resolved)    
     Lists names resolved by broadcast and via WINS
-R   (Reload)      
     Purges and reloads the remote cache name table
-S   (Sessions)    
     Lists sessions table with the destination IP addresses
-s   (sessions)    
     Lists sessions table converting destination IP addresses to computer NETBIOS names.
-RR  (ReleaseRefresh)
     Sends Name Release packets to WINS and then, starts Refresh


RemoteName - Remote host machine name.
IP address - Dotted decimal representation of the IP address.
interval - Redisplays selected statistics, pausing interval seconds between each display. Press Ctrl+C to stop redisplaying statistics.

The useful commands are the -a,-A which allow querying of remote machines either by name or IP address, the -n returns the local hosts information.

From security point of view by analysis of the NetBIOS information on a computer it is possible to identity a machines NetBIOS name, the domain it is part of and the domain controller, along with the function of the machine. All this is from understanding the NetBIOS and the character type identifier. To gain this information we need to use the nbtstat tool or equivalents.

Other tools

The output of nbtstat is collected by a number of standard PenTesting tools, below is an example of the output from NMAP when run against a target machine

| nbstat:
|   NetBIOS name: INSECURE-62400A, NetBIOS user: <unknown>, NetBIOS MAC: 08:00:27:fc:55:b3 (Cadmus Computer Systems)
|   Names
|     INSECURE-62400A<00>  Flags: <unique><active>
|     WORKGROUP<00>        Flags: <group><active>
|     INSECURE-62400A<20>  Flags: <unique><active>
|     WORKGROUP<1e>        Flags: <group><active>
|     WORKGROUP<1d>        Flags: <unique><active>
|_    \x01\x02__MSBROWSE__\x02<01>  Flags: <group><active>

This clears shows the machine workstation with a workgroup, however if it had been part of a domain we could identify the domain and the domain controller.

Useful NMAP scripts

broadcast-netbios-master-browser - Attempts to discover master browsers and the domains they manage.
nbstat - Attempts to retrieve the target's NetBIOS names and MAC address.

Tuesday, 19 March 2013

PenTest Machine configuration (pt2)

PenTest machine configuration (pt2)

Continuing my set of notes on preparing a machine for the  CREST registered tester exam. An important disclaimer is that this is set-up the tools that I use for some PenTesting, it is not a recommend set-up for the exam, each candidate need to assemble their own test machine to suit their own methodology.

One of the items I set-up was a Windows machine using VirtualBox, this machine is to allow easy access to Windows passed tools to help with attacking Windows targets. The tools I have installed are as follows

  • Cain & Abel
  • SysInternals suite of tools
  • Command here (Power toy)
  • WinnFingerprint
  • nbtscan
  • Scanline
  • Netcat
  • TFTP 32 server
  • hxdef100
  • dcomexploit

The last couple are ones that occasionally useful on old unpatched machines, likelihood of needing them is very low but it does hurt to have some old faithfuls around

Sunday, 17 March 2013

Nikto & MagicTree

Magic Tree is a Pen testing productivity tool on Backtrack 5R3 and from a standard install it can't launch Nikto from with itself and access the output file.

What are Nikto & Magic Tree

Nikto is an Open Source (GPL) web server scanner which performs comprehensive tests against web servers for multiple items, including over 6500 potentially dangerous files/CGIs, checks for outdated versions of over 1250 servers, and version specific problems on over 270 servers. It also checks for server configuration items such as the presence of multiple index files, HTTP server options, and will attempt to identify installed web servers and software. Scan items and plugins are frequently updated and can be automatically updated

MagicTree is a penetration tester productivity tool. It is designed to allow easy and straightforward data consolidation, querying, external command execution and report generation.  "Tree" is because all the data is stored in a tree structure, and "Magic" is because it is designed to magically do the most cumbersome and boring part of penetration testing - data management and reporting.

Configuring Nikto to work with other tools such as MagicTree on Backtrack 5R3

Create a symbolic link for

ln -s /pentest/web/nikto/ /usr/local/bin

Edit /pentest/web/nikto/, modify the configfile variable line to be

$VARIABLES{'configfile'} = /pentest/web/nikto/nikto.conf"

Edit the nikto.conf file


Using Nikto from Magic Tree

Queries can be run on the data gathered within Magic Tree which generate host and port number details, these can be fed into Nikto in the following command, the use of $out allows the XML formatted data from Nikto to be merged with the existing data in Magic Tree -host $host -port $port -Format xml -output $out


Nikto -
MagicTree -

PenTest machine configuration

Notes on preparing a machine for the  CREST registered tester exam. An important disclaimer is that this is set-up the tools that I use for some PenTesting, it is not a recommend set-up for the exam, each candidate need to assemble their own test machine to suit their methodology.

I am starting with Backtrack 5R3 as a basis


Installed virtualbox for running a windows virtual machine to allow access to windows based tools for testing Windows clients.

Download the version for Ubuntu 10.04 from the official site


Install some dependencies and install virtualbox

apt-get -f -y autoremove
apt-get install libqt4-opengl libqt4-opengl-dev
dpkg -i virtualbox-4.0_4.0.10-72479~Ubuntu~lucid_i386.deb 


installed rlogin to allow use of the R* services, if not installed attempting to rlogin uses SSH

apt-get install rsh-client


installed tftp clients and services

apt-get install tftpd

apt-get install atftpd


OpenNAS is a fork of Nessus v2 and to be honest I would prefer to use the professional feed version of Nessus for this testing, however we are working on a couple of jobs for clients and I can't hijack the application for use on the test. So since I have used OpenNAS before and it has given good results I will be using that. However on the backtrack distro is requires setting up and some additional configurations to get it working fully.

At any stage of the configuration you can always run the following script to check what is missing:


The stages to go through are

Configure certificates


Then sync the NVTs:


Create an admin account:

openvasad -c 'add_user' -n admin -r Admin

Configure access for the OpenVas Manager:

 openvas-mkcert-client -n om -i

Start the scanner (this will take some time after the NVTs has been sync'd) :


Finally rebuild the database and run the services:

openvasmd --rebuild
openvasmd -p 9390
openvasad -p 9393
gsad --http-only -p 9392

Now browse to port 9392 on your machine and login with the account you created or use the security desktop. OpenVas will be unable to run other additional scanners, to enable it to use them do the following

Install Arachni: apt-get update;

apt-get install arachni

Create the following symbolic links:

ln -s /pentest/web/dirb/dirb /usr/local/bin
ln -s /pentest/web/nikto/ /usr/local/bin

Edit /pentest/web/nikto/, modify the configfile variable line to be

$VARIABLES{'configfile'} = /pentest/web/nikto/nikto.conf"

Edit /pentest/web/nikto/nikto.conf and set EXECDIR to /pentest/web/nikto


In order to get Wapiti to work it needs more than a symbolic link in the /usr/local/bin directory. Both the python scripts ( & should be owned by root and executable, in my set-up only the script needed setting to executable.

chmod 755 /pentest/web/wapiti/

Need to create a wapiti script in the /usr/local/bin directory containing the following lines

cd  /pentest/web/wapiti/
./ $*

Ensure it is executable and owned by root, finally to make it easier to start OpenVAS create a startup script which contains the following

openvasmd --rebuild
openvasmd -p 9390
openvasad -p 9393
gsad --http-only -p 9392

Kali update

One of the tools I would of liked installed within Kali would of been Armitage, however quick as flash on the fast and easy hacking website a post on installing it, the good news it was in the Kali Linux repository.

So using

apt-get install armitage

Installed one of my favourite tools, in order to use it you need to start metasploit which is described on the Kali documentation pages

service postgresql start
service metasploit start

As always to start the console and when started for the first time it will create it's own database


If you would prefer to have PostgreSQL and Metasploit launch at startup, you can use update-rc.d to enable the services as follows.

update-rc.d postgresql enable
update-rc.d metasploit enable

My next look will be OpenVAS

Thursday, 14 March 2013

Installing Kali

Managed yesterday to download the new enterprise version of backtrack which is called Kali last night and decided to play with installing into a virtual machine. I used to use VMWare a lot but have been using virtual box recently.

For this exercise decided to try and install into VirtualBox and after going through the graphical install routine from the ISO boot menu, on restarting got a critical error and at midnight decided to give it a rest and experiment later with the installation.

Tonight, although a VMWare version of Kali is available decided to install from the ISO image into VMWare, absoultly no problems with the process, although to get the open VM tools working fully in the graphical mode needed to run an additional command that is not on the Kali Documentation website 

In addition to using

apt-get install open-vm-tools

you need to run the following

apt-get install open-vm-toolbox

A restart later and instance moving of mouse between guest and host.

Now to do some further playing and will post anything interesting

Wednesday, 13 March 2013

Tools Update (13th Mar 13)

My slightly irregular update on new and updated Information Security tools that I have come across or use. The tools are mainly those for PenTesting although other tools are sometimes included. As a bit of background into how I find these tools, I keep a close watch on twitter and other websites to find updates or new releases, I also search for pen testing and security projects on Source Forge. Some of the best sites I have found for details of new tools and releases are 

Big news is the release of Kali Linux, the enterprise version of Backtrack, the announcement points to a new web site that supports the project.

In their words "From the creators of BackTrack comes Kali Linux, the most advanced and versatile penetration testing distribution ever created. BackTrack has grown far beyond its humble roots as a live CD and has now become a full-fledged operating system. With all this buzz, you might be asking yourself"

I have downloaded a copy to try but the big differences are listed as being that Kali Linux is geared towards professional penetration testing and security auditing. 

As such, several core changes have been implemented in Kali Linux which reflect these needs:

  • Single user, root access by design: Due to the nature of security audits, Kali linux is designed to be used in a “single, root user” scenario
  • Network services disabled by default: Kali Linux contains sysvinit hooks which disable network services by default. These hooks allow us to install various services on Kali Linux, while ensuring that our distribution remains secure by default, no matter what packages are installed. Additional services such as Bluetooth are also blacklisted by default
  • Custom Linux kernel: Kali Linux uses an upstream kernel, patched for wireless injection.

An interesting development is the availability of distro suitable for the Raspberry Pi